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06-Nov-2017 08:00

They never went to war against the United States but they were forcibly relocated in 1831-1833, as part of the Indian Removal, in order for the US to take over their land for development by European Americans.

In the 19th century, the Choctaw were classified by European Americans as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes" because they adopted numerous practices of their United States neighbors.

However, Jack Amos legally challenged the Choctaw Nation's stance at the turn of the 20th century.

In 1978, the United Supreme Court of the United States held that all remnants of the Choctaw Nation are entitled to all rights of the federally recognized Nation.

By the 1831 Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, those Choctaw who chose to stay in the newly formed state of Mississippi were to be considered state and U. citizens; they were one of the first major non-European ethnic groups to be granted citizenship.

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About 1,700 years ago, the Hopewell people built Nanih Waiya, a great earthwork mound located in what is central present-day Mississippi. The early Spanish explorers of the mid-16th century in the Southeast encountered Mississippian-culture villages and chiefs.

The Choctaw were the first Native American tribe forced to relocate under the Indian Removal Act. Their early government had three districts, each with its own chief, who together with the town chiefs sat on their National Council.

They appointed a Choctaw Delegate to represent them to the US government in Washington, DC.

Direct evidence in the Southeast is meager, but archaeological discoveries in related areas support this hypothesis. Moundbuilding cultures included the Woodland period people who first built Nanih Waiya.

Scholars believe the mound was contemporary with such earthworks as Igomar Mound in Mississippi and Pinson Mounds in Tennessee.Based on dating of surface artifacts, the Nanih Waiya mound was likely constructed and first occupied by indigenous peoples about 0–300 CE, in the Middle Woodland period.